Preventive measures carried out in the spring reduce the risk of diseases and harmful insects on the apple tree by 70%. This is a guarantee of a large and high-quality harvest of healthy and tasty fruits. Activities begin even before the snow melts, continue throughout the spring and are divided into several stages.
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First you need to eliminate areas of the bark with defects. Cracks, chips and dead layer of the trunk serve as a refuge for pests. Therefore, deep lesions are treated, and the dead bark is removed and destroyed.
For whitewashing, prepare a composition containing 5% copper sulfate and lime:
- To get a 5% product, you need to dissolve 200 g of copper sulfate in 4 liters of water.
- Add 4 kg of slaked lime and liquid. Stir until smooth.
- To make the composition sufficiently viscous and fit tightly on the surface of the bark, add up to 5 kg of clay. The resulting mixture should have the consistency of thick sour cream.
Simultaneously with the whitewashing, dry branches are trimmed and the crown is formed. Slices with a diameter of more than 2 mm are covered with pitch or putty.
The treatment of apple trees for diseases and pests should be carried out 4 times in the spring, since all kinds of insect pests and fungal diseases are activated gradually:
- On bare branches. Processing is carried out in early March, as soon as it rises above + 5 ° C in the afternoon.
- Along the green cone. The procedure is performed when the kidneys are forming. The daytime temperature is set in the range of + 10... + 15 ° С.
- By the rosebud. The flower has already appeared, but has not yet opened. During this period, the plant is attacked by the apple moth.
- On fruit ovaries. Small ovaries form in place of the flower, and it is necessary to re-spray against the moth.
The first treatment procedure is carried out to combat fungal diseases. For this, you can use the following solutions:
- In 5 liters of hot water add 350 g of urea (urea) and 25 g of copper sulfate. The composition must be filtered to prevent clogging of the spray nozzle with undissolved sediment. The mixture not only saves the tree from fungus, but is also a fertilizer and protection: carbamide slows down the development process, the apple tree blooms a week later, which protects it from late frosts.
- Inkstone. Destroys lichens, fruit rot and powdery mildew. It is sold as a preparation that must be diluted with water.
Wood processing on a green cone is carried out in order to eradicate parasites. Productively combined use of preparations for etching the fungus (fungicides) and means for eliminating insects (insecticides):
The third stage of processing falls on the warm period, you can use biological agents, the action of which is aimed at combating the moth:
The plant is abundantly sprayed, sparing no solution. The mixture should be applied to all branches of the tree and the soil surface within a radius of at least 1 m.
The last procedure is performed after the ovary of the fetus. When the apple tree is actively blooming, any chemical action is prohibited. For the final stage, mix 2 g of the preparations "Skora" and "Aktara" with 10 liters of water. The solution is applied to leaves, branches, trunk and soil next to the tree.
When processing, the gardener needs to protect exposed skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Spraying should be carried out in calm, windless weather, in the afternoon after the sun loses its activity.
Do you process apple trees for diseases and pests?
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I wrote about apple varieties in the following article:10 most popular summer apple varieties