If the weather is good (or extreme heat or torrential rains), watering tomatoes you produce regularly, do not forget about feeding, and plants still wither, turn yellow and wither - maybe it Fusarium.
Fusarium wilt - a dangerous fungal disease garden plants, which can not only lead to the loss of a significant part of the crop, but even to the death of heavily infected crops. Therefore, a good idea to know in advance the symptoms of disease, as well as means of prevention and treatment methods.
How to recognize a blight on tomatoes
Typically Fusarium manifested at the flowering stage, formation of ovaries and ripening of tomato fruit. If similar symptoms are observed on very young plants are likely to be a cause of decay - lack of mineral nutrition, failure of irrigation system, another fungal disease (eg, vertitsillez).
Cause any fusarium pathogenic fungi from the same genus Fusarium.
The disease always starts with a lower "tiers" of leaves, then moving up - the fact that the fungus penetrates into the vascular system of plants from the soil through the points of the growth of thin lateral roots, and then using only mycelia extends through the vessels of all the other parts (stems, leaves, fruits, seeds).
The result of the activity of this fungus in the tissues of tomato accumulate toxic substances that cause metabolic disorders and dehydration plants.
Symptoms of Fusarium
The first signs of Fusarium appear on the lower leaves which turn yellow (chlorosis), dry and curl. Then begin to wither and become deformed shoot tips (no yellowing), bend the stalks, lighter veins and curl the rest of the leaves.
In longitudinal sectional damaged stems of tomato can be seen clearly red-brown darkening portions vessels.
If you do not take treatment measures, the plants quickly weaken and may die.
For some reason, there is blight of tomatoes
Fusarium wilt often affects tomato plants in a protected ground, especially if there are tomatoes grown without changing the crop year after year.
The fact that the fungus overwinters in the soil and on the remains of infected plants, so without a thorough autumn digging the soil, regular Disinfection of greenhouse structures and soil, as well as observance of crop rotation in your tomatoes have all the chances in the new garden season catch this disease.
The infected plant residues can get on your beds and in the composition of compost or mulch - be careful not to allow such situations.
The fungus can persist and seeds from infected plants - is therefore necessary to etch any tomato seeds before planting.
The same goes for the transplanted material - if you get it "on the side", obligatory disinfection roots plants with a clod of earth to the antifungal drugs before planting young tomato on a permanent place. When transplanting into each well possible to pour 10 g of Trichoderma.
Fusarium Infection may occur when mechanical damages plant tissues. Sloppy treatment of soil near the roots pasynkovanie careless, dirty work tools, which can transferred from other fungus infected plants - all these manipulations quite help to transfer and dissemination of Fusarium.
The emergence of the disease contributes to the excess nitrogen nutrition and tomatoes - unnecessarily fast-growing green tissues become too "loose" and less durable, more susceptible to various kinds of mechanical damage (though root penetration, in this case a priority, spores and fungus micelles can enter the plant and through the outer "Sores").
How to deal with Fusarium tomatoes
Above we have listed ways to prevent the emergence of this unpleasant disease. What action to take, if the infection has already occurred and tomatoes show all the above signs of Fusarium?
Some gardeners who oppose the "chemistry" on the site, from Fusarium are trying to use traditional methods like spraying a sol of tomatoes or nettle extract, strait beds solution of potassium permanganate, soil dolomite flour.
Unfortunately, the fungus penetrates deep into the vascular system of the plant, so these methods are generally ineffective, and for getting rid of it is necessary to refer to the effective systemic fungicides, which are able to operate within plants. In the case of Fusarium well proven following preparations - Kagatnik, fundazol, Benazol etc.
Important - contact action fungicides (HOM, Bordeaux mixture) against Fusarium tomatoes do not work, they are not able to penetrate deep into the plant tissue.
Good results are obtained preplant seed treatment and subsequent spraying tomato plants during the growing season biological fungicides (Alirin-B, Trichoderma, Planriz).
Save badly damaged plants usually no longer possible, so you have to dig them and destroy, not forgetting compulsorily disinfected or replace the soil in the place of his bygone growth.
The most effective way to prevent the emergence of Fusarium tomatoes is growing resistant varieties and hybrids: Blitz, Alaska, Vologda the F1, Sanka, the F1 Spartak, Rusich, the F1 charisma, the Ural F1.
An indirect method can be used to try to avoid this disease by careful observance of rotation, the temperature and humidity of tomato cultivation regime landings circuit watering and fertilizing.
As you can see, deal with Fusarium can and should be. The main thing - to observe the prevention and miss the initial stages of infection, when the fungus is not difficult to handle even the minimum of effort.
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